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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2018
Volume 2 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-33

Online since Tuesday, July 17, 2018

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Probiotics in human health p. 1
Nigel R Figueiredo, Ajit D Dinkar, Manisha M Khorate
DOI:10.4103/ijofb.ijofb_1_18  
Probiotics are bacterial cultures or living microorganisms, which on ingestion in a certain quantity, promote, and enhance health benefits. Afew conventional foods containing probiotics include yogurt, fermented and unfermented milk, cheese, etc. Strains of genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are the most widely used probiotic bacteria. Conventionally, probiotics have been associated with the gastrointestinal tract; however, recently several investigators have suggested the use of probiotics for oral health. This article describes the mechanism of action and role of probiotics in general and oral health and discusses the potential benefits of probiotics in oral health.
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Cytokeratin: Areview on current concepts p. 6
Anoop Kumar, Nithya Jagannathan
DOI:10.4103/ijofb.ijofb_3_18  
Cytokeratins are proteins which form the intermediate filaments and form the major cytoskeleton of the epithelial cells. It has an enormous role in providing mechanical support to the cell. There are various kinds of cytokeratins each showing varied expression in the epithelium. The cytokeratins can be broadly classified into typeI or acidic and typeII or basic proteins. The expression of these plays a role in differentiating different types of epithelial cells, thus enabling us to classify tumors. They help in diagnosing different types of tumors and thus have a vital role in diagnostic pathology.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Expression of calretinin in odontogenic tumors: An observational study p. 12
Mohamed Thawfeek, Ramesh Venkatapathy, Nirima Oza, Karthikshree V Prashad, Sankari Radhakrishnan, Saikat Chakraborty
DOI:10.4103/ijofb.ijofb_2_18  
Background and Aim: Calretinin is largely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system and is also known to be expressed in the odontogenic epithelium during odontogenesis and in certain odontogenic tumors. However, the role of calretinin in the pathogenesis of odontogenic tumors is yet to be confirmed. Thus, the present study is aimed at evaluating the expression and role of calretinin in selected odontogenic tumors. Materials and Methods: The study included six ameloblastoma and one adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, one calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor and one deciduous tooth germ. Sections were subjected to immunohistochemistry procedure, and staining intensity, pattern, and localization of the immunopositive cells were determined. Results: Results showed that 50% ameloblastomas were immunopositive to calretinin, whereas adenomatoid and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor showed mild reactivity. Intensity was higher in the ameloblastomas compared with the other odontogenic tumors. Conclusion: Calretinin appears to be expressing significantly more in ameloblastoma when compared with other odontogenic tumors. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that calretinin might play a possible role in the pathogenesis of ameloblastomas. However, statistics could not be applied due to the lesser sample size and hence we suggest that further studies have to be done along with other proliferative cell cycle and apoptotic markers with larger sample size.
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Dentinal tubule morphology in carious lesions: Aconfocal microscopic study p. 16
Niroshini Rajaram, Pratibha Ramani, Priya Premkumar, Anuja Natesan, Herald J Sherlin
DOI:10.4103/ijofb.ijofb_5_18  
Objective: The present study was designed to analyze the morphology of dentinal tubules in carious lesions using confocal microscopy. Materials and Methods: Undecalcified ground sections of human teeth were stained with alizarin red and examined by confocal microscopy. Ten extracted carious teeth (premolar and molar) were collected, disinfected, and simultaneously fixed by storing the teeth in 10% formalin for 5days. The specimens were later dehydrated and embedded in resin. Longitudinal and cross sections were cut, polished, and then stained with alizarin red. After dehydration, specimens were mounted on a glass slide and examined under confocal microscope using epi-fluorescent mode or transmission light mode at a wavelength of 512nm. Results: The dentinal tubule morphology and the zones of dentinal caries were studied, and the histopathological changes of dentinal tubules showed areas of demineralized dentin, translucent dentin, and normal area. Conclusion: The current study showed that confocal laser scanning microscope has the ability to focus through a carious lesion into the underlying sound dentin and it is considered to be a nondestructive technique in demonstrating mineral changes in carious dentin.
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Trop2 in adenoid cystic carcinoma: Apilot study p. 20
L Pratheepa, Herald J Sherlin, Anuja Natesan, Priya Premkumar, Pratibha Ramani
DOI:10.4103/ijofb.ijofb_4_18  
Background: Adenoid cystic carcinoma(ACC) is one of the common salivary gland malignancies with a high recurrence rate and a tendency for perineural invasion. Trop2 is a cell surface glycoprotein expressed in trophoblasts. It is believed to be an oncogenic glycoprotein that plays a role in tumorigenesis. The current study was a maiden attempt to study Trop2 expression in cases of ACC. Materials and Methods: Four histopathologically confirmed cases of ACC were subjected to immunohistochemical staining using the Trop2 antibody. Results: The staining for Trop2 was negative in all the cases of ACC. Conclusion: Trop2 seems to be a molecule with varied functions. Identification of the other pathways that go hand in hand with Trop2 might help us to understand clearly its role in pathogenesis. Such studies might also throw more light on the varied expression pattern of Trop2 in different carcinomas.
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Study on variationsof pulp morphology in normal teeth p. 23
Lavanya Karunagaran, Pratibha Ramani, Priya Premkumar, Anuja Natesan, Herald Sherlin
DOI:10.4103/ijofb.ijofb_6_18  
Background: Every tooth has a distinctive pulp and root morphology which varies from one segment to another. This myriad presentation of the pulp makes better understanding of pulp morphology mandatory to provide a successful endodontic treatment. Previously, extensive studies have been done on the morphology of the pulp. Objective: The present study was designed to study the pulpal morphology using the diaphanizationtechnique. Materials and Methods: Fifty normally developed and erupted single-rooted and multi-rooted teeth were selected for the study, and the diaphanization technique was used to render them transparent. Methyl red/violet dyes were injected until it took up the entire pulp morphology, except for slight destruction in the crown portion due to the access preparation. The tooth model was then mounted vertically on to a sticky wax. Results: The lateral canals, apical foramina, furcations, and anastomoses of all the teeth were analyzed. Conclusion: The diaphanization technique helped in visualizing the pulp morphology of each tooth in a 3-dimensional aspect. It is an easier and inexpensive tool that provides better insight into understanding the pulp morphology in vitro. The models hence prepared can be used as teaching aid in preclinical studies for dental students to gain skills.
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CASE REPORTS Top

An unusual presentation of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor p. 26
Sheetal Rangaiya, Ajit D Dinkar, Manisha M Khorate, Nigel R Figueiredo
DOI:10.4103/ijofb.ijofb_21_17  
Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor(AOT) is a relatively rare neoplasm. This tumor most commonly occurs in the maxilla, in the age range of 3–82years and has a female predilection. Most AOTs occur intraosseously, while few occur within gingival structures. AOT located intraosseously may/may not be associated with an unerupted tooth(extrafollicular variant). This article highlights the unusual presentation of AOT seen in an 11-year-old female patient with a history of trauma 4years back and a noticeable swelling in the same region 2years later. The clinical findings were suggestive of traumatic bone cyst, fibroma, central ossifying fibroma, central giant cell granuloma(CGCG), and odontogenic tumor. Based on the radiological features, a differential diagnosis of central ossifying fibroma, CGCG, fibrous dysplasia, and extrafollicular variant of AOT/odontogenic tumor was given. Eventually, radiographic and histopathologic investigations confirmed the case as an extrafollicular variant of AOT.
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Actinomycotic infection of the tonsils: acase report and review of the literature p. 31
Ramiya Ramachandran Kaipuzha, Satvinder Singh Bakshi, Suriyanarayanan Gopalakrishnan, A Govindarajan
DOI:10.4103/ijofb.ijofb_19_17  
Actinomycotic infections of the head and neck, although fairly uncommon, represent an important entity because of its varied presentation, difficult diagnosis, and long course of treatment. A20-year-old female presented with throat pain and difficulty in swallowing since 1year. Examination revealed a GradeIV enlargement of the left tonsil. The patient underwent tonsillectomy, and the postoperative histopathology revealed actinomycosis. Actinomyces are anaerobic filamentous bacteria which are known to colonize as commensals in tonsillar crypts which on histology show an outer zone of granulation tissue and a central zone of necrosis containing many sulfur granules that represent microcolonies of actinomyces. Actinomycosis of the head-and-neck region is a significant entity because it can mimic other common lesions especially in the oropharynx. In cases of recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy, tonsillectomy is the treatment of choice and histopathological examination of resected tissue is strongly advocated. This report supports the view that actinomyces may have a causal association with recurrent acute tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy.
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