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   2017| July-December  | Volume 1 | Issue 2  
    Online since January 23, 2018

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Recurrent aphthous stomatitis
M Namrata, R Abilasha
July-December 2017, 1(2):43-47
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is commonly known as mouth ulcer. RAS is a very common disease of the mouth. Hence, it is important for dental clinicians to know about the clinical features, causes, diagnostic techniques, and the treatment and management of RAS. Clinically, RAS is seen in three forms minor RAS, major RAS, herpetiform RAS, and in HIV patients, the fourth form is seen. Considerable amount of research has been done to elucidate the causes of RAS; local factors, systemic factors, genetic factors, microbial factors, immunologic factors, etc., but to date, no principal etiology has been discovered. There are three lines of treatment suggested for the treatment of RAS but the treatment generally given is symptomatic. This review gives an up-to-date view of the disease.
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Trigeminal neuralgia
A Ankita Taltia
July-December 2017, 1(2):48-52
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a recognized complication associated with trigeminal nerve. This case report describes a patient with classical unilateral TN. TN or tic douloureux is an idiopathic disorder and the most common cause of unilateral facial pain. There is no specific test to make a diagnosis of TN, and a clinical examination including assessment of cranial nerve function is mandatory. Magnetic resonance imaging can be useful in examining patients with neurological abnormalities. The various hypothesis on the pathogenesis of TN is discussed in the report. The current opinion is now in favor of a “neurovascular conflict:” an artery, most often a loop of the superior or anteroinferior cerebellar artery, has an offending contact with the trigeminal nerve root, which results in localized demyelination and ectopic triggering of neuronal discharges. This hypothesis is in agreement with the relief provided by antiepileptic drugs and is supported by recent neuroimaging data. Medical treatment (particularly carbamazepine) in these patients is very effective in controlling pain symptoms. For patients with continued pain, in spite of adequate medical treatment surgical options can be considered.
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Burning mouth syndrome
Gayathri Devi Kumaresan, M Subha
July-December 2017, 1(2):53-58
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS), a chronic orofacial pain syndrome is characterized by the presence of burning, stinging, and/or itching of the oral cavity in the absence of specific oral lesion. This condition affects chiefly of middle-aged and elderly woman with hormonal changes or psychological disorders. In addition to burning sensation, patient with BMS can be accompanied by gustatory disturbances such as dysgeusia (distortion in the sense of taste), parageusia, and subjective xerostomia (dry mouth) also complains of oral mucosal pain. This condition is probably of multifactorial origin, involving various local, systemic, and/or psychogenic causes, often idiopathic and its exact etiopathogenesis remains unclear. Female gender, premenopausal, depression and anxiety, Parkinson's disease, and chronic medical conditions including gastrointestinal and urogenital diseases are risk factors for developing BMS. BMS most often involves the tongue with or without extension to the lips and oral mucosa. The present paper discusses several aspects of BMS, updates current knowledge, and provides guidelines for patient management. The aim of this study is to review the current concepts regarding pathogenesis, classification, diagnosis, and treatment for this disorder. A literature review was carried out on Google Scholar and PubMed/Medline about the BMS and the related articles was selected and reviewed. BMS is a painful and often frustrating condition to the patients. There is no universal opinion regarding etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of BMS. BMS is a diagnosis of ejection which plausibly has multifactorial origin. A thorough understanding of the etiology and psychological impact of this disorder is required for better management. Diverse pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies are available, but it is unmanageable to achieve curative treatment. Compounding of cognitive behavioral therapy, alpha-lipoic acid, and/or clonazepam had shown promising results.
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Awareness about denture hygiene: A survey among patients wearing complete dentures and removable partial dentures
M Namrata, Dhanraj Ganapathy
July-December 2017, 1(2):59-65
Background and Aim: The awareness of prosthetic treatment among patients has seen an increase lately, and hence surge in the prosthetic treatment. Efficient and regular cleaning of denture is necessary to maintain good oral hygiene conditions and also to maintain the durability of the dentures. The aim of this research is to evaluate the awareness of patients toward denture hygiene using a questionnaire survey. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was used to reveal the knowledge of 2 groups consisting of 50 each to evaluate their awareness of maintenance of denture hygiene (group 1 – complete denture wearers, group 2 –removable partial denture wearers). The questionnaire consisting of 20 questions collected demographic details of patients, type and duration of the denture worn, cleaning habits employed by the patients, and other details relevant to denture hygiene awareness and knowledge of patients. Results: A total of 100 patients were reviewed with their age ranging from 45 to 75. Among them 44% (25%-RPD,19%-CD) were male and 56% (25%-RPD,31%-CD) were female. Most of the patients (93%) wear their denture for all days in a week except at night. Regarding storage of dentures most patient (90%) immersed their dentures in water, whereas only 10% stored them in the dry environment. When the patients were asked whether they received instruction from their dentist regarding denture cleaning, only 45% are said to have received while 55% replied negatively. About 46% cleaned their denture more than twice per day, whereas 39% were found to clean twice a day and only 15% once per day. Regarding the method of cleaning denture the most common method was found to be with water (45%), with brush and water (40%), water and salt (9%), brush and paste (5%), and finally, brush and solution (1%). More than half of the patients (51%) used denture cleansers. In this study, it was found that only 10% of patients went for regular follow-ups. Conclusion: The denture care practices are said to be satisfactory, but there is a need to increase awareness among dentists on the importance of educating patients about denture hygiene.
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Status of alcoholism among dental students: A questionnaire-based study
Nandhini G Ashok, M Namrata, Dhanraj Ganapathy
July-December 2017, 1(2):66-69
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and frequency of use of alcohol use among dental students in Saveetha Dental College. Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire-based observational cross-sectional type of study including 500 dental students from Saveetha Dental College. A self-administered questionnaire was given to the students and was designed to collect data on year of study, gender, and use of alcohol among dental students. Results: The results of this survey reflect alcohol usage among dental students. In the present study, a high amount which is nearly 95% of the subjects had experimented with alcohol. In our survey, nearly 23.73% of the subjects were involved in binge drinking, which is similar to the study done by Andrade 27 et al. 19 (21.8%) in the year 2012. The finding of binge drinking in the current study was higher when compared to the study done by Gignon et al. 26 in the year 2015 among 255 s to 5th year medical students where it was 11%. Conclusion: Nearly two-third of all students were involved in alcohol drinking. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the educators to make sure to spread knowledge regarding substances abuse among the college students. Professional treatment programs should be comprehensive in approach, and should not entirely focus on substance abuse issues but should also include the treatment of dejection, apprehension, situational depression, and awareness about alcohol consumption among college students.
  148 32 -
Determination of ABO blood grouping from dentine and pulp by absorption-elution technique
Dushyantsinh Vala, Abhishek Singh Nayyar, VK Pooja, B Kartheeki, Nehal Patel, Devanshi Vala, P Tanmay
July-December 2017, 1(2):70-80
Introduction: Blood grouping has been one of the cornerstones of identification of biological material. Mostly, teeth and bones are the only significant tissues remaining in mass disasters such as aircraft crash or, bomb blasts and hence, used in human identification. It has, also, been suggested that blood group antigens in the pulp and dentine are preserved even up to 2 years after the death of an individual. Aim: In the present study, an attempt was made to determine the ABO blood grouping from the dentine and pulp by absorption-elution (AE) technique. Materials and Methods: The study group included sixty patients requiring extraction due to periodontal or, orthodontic purposes. The extraction procedure was carried out under local anesthesia following an aseptic protocol. After extraction, the socket blood was collected for blood group determination which served as control for the study. The blood grouping was performed by AE technique using powdered dentine and dental pulp. Statistical Analysis: The statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 19. The statistical analysis for comparison of teeth component with ABO blood groups with the age period and gender differentiation was done using Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Out of sixty samples tested for ABO blood grouping, dentine and pulp showed no significant difference with age and gender; results were more positive in the age group in which individuals were <20 years of age with the sensitivity decreasing with increasing age of the individuals, while pulp was better than dentine in expressing ABO antigens. Conclusion: On the basis of the results obtained from the present study, it could be concluded that both dentine and pulp are reliable sources of blood group determination for ABO blood grouping where teeth happen to be the only remnants available for personal identification.
  97 22 -
Cancerous tonsillar hypertrophy caused by human papilloma virus
Ramiya Ramachandran Kaipuzha, Satvinder Singh Bakshi, Suriyanarayanan Gopalakrishnan, A Govindarajan
July-December 2017, 1(2):81-83
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the development of most anogenital carcinomas, including cervical cancer and has more recently been suggested to be a risk factor for a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The prevalence of HPV in normal oral mucosa ranges from 0.6% to 81%. A 15-year-old female presented with complaints of chronically progressive pain on swallowing since 3 years. Examination revealed bilateral Grade III tonsillar enlargement with multiple warty appearances over the surface of the tonsils. Subsequently, she underwent tonsillectomy, and histopathologic study revealed tonsillar crypts lined by stratified squamous epithelium with focal koilocytic changes. PCR study detected HPV 11 DNA. The presence of HPV in the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract mucosa is of great importance since several studies have demonstrated an association of HPV with a great variety of benign and malignant lesions. The easy access to the tonsillar crypts and the favorable microenvironmental factors of the crypts may be causes of the high prevalence of HPV in nongenital regions. A rare case of benign papillomatosis of the tonsil is presented. The need for a long-term follow-up is highlighted to study the possibility and risk factors for malignant transformation.
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